How to Design and Choose Optical Splitter

There are many types of optical splitters on the market. Faced with various products, it is very important to know how to choose and design optical splitter.

Design and choose according to the application of the optical splitter

In applications where there are few branches and the light wavelength is not sensitive (that is, only 1×2 or 1×4 is needed), choose an FBT splitter.

In FTTH and other applications that require multiple wavelengths (that is, more than 1×4), choose a PLC optical splitter, because PLC optical splitter has consistent light splitting and uniform channels.

Design and choose the optical splitter according to the splitting ratio

The split ratios of commonly used optical splitters are 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 1:16, 1:32, and 1:64. When necessary, 2:N optical splitter or non-uniform splitting can also be selected. When configuring the optical splitter, the maximum utilization rate of each PON port and optical splitter of the equipment must be considered, and the optimal optical splitter combination mode should be selected according to the user distribution density and distribution form. In terms of splitting ratio selection, in order to effectively reduce the investment in backbone optical cables, operators can choose equipment and devices with large splitting ratios (such as PX20+ equipment), and try to achieve a total splitting ratio of 1:64 for each PON port.

PON splitter

Design and choose the optical splitter according to the installation location

Rack-mounted splitter:

  • installed in a 19-inch OLT cabinet
  • when the fiber branch is used in the home, the installation equipment provided is a standard digital cabinet
  • when the ODN needs to be placed on the table

Cassette splitter:

  • installed in a 19-inch standard rack
  • when the optical fiber branches into the home, the installation equipment provided is the optical cable junction box
  • when the optical fiber branches into the home, it is installed in the equipment specified by the customer

Bare splitter:

  • installed in various types of pigtail boxes
  • installed in various types of test instruments and WDM systems

Fanout splitter:

  • installed in various types of optical accessories
  • installed in various types of optical test instruments

Blockless splitter:

  • installed in a fiber optic splice box
  • installed in the module box
  • installed in the wiring box

Plug-in splitter:

this equipment is a user access point that needs to be split in the FTTX system. It mainly completes the optical winding into the end of the cell or building, and has the functions of fiber fixing, stripping, fusion, jumper, branching and other functions. After splitting, it enters the end user in the form of a home optical cable.

Tray splitter:

suitable for integrated installation and use of various types of fiber optic splitters, wavelength division multiplexers, etc.

Design and choose the optical splitter according to the splitting level

Regarding the light splitting levels, operators can flexibly choose centralized splitting or distributed splitting according to the size of the building and the distribution of users. The general principle is:

  • For residential or industrial parks with very low user density, you can try to choose concentrated light splitting in the community to improve the efficiency of light splitting and utilization rate of PON ports and optical splitters;
  • For residences or parks with low user density, you can choose to do first-level light splitting in the community first, and do second-level light splitting in the building;
  • For small and high-rise residential buildings with medium user density, do the first-level centralized light splitting in the building;
  • For ultra-high residences with high user density, you can choose second-level light splitting in the building.

In addition,

  • Try to use centralized splitting as a first choice. There are three advantages to using centralized splitting: PON utilization can be maximized; fault diagnosis is convenient; system reliability is high.
  • Does not exceed two levels of splitting.

Design and choose the optical splitter according to technology specification

Pay attention to the working wavelength range, and try to choose the full-band 1260nm~1650nm. If the system wants to transmit CATV video signals, pay attention to return loss indicators. The higher the return loss, the better to reduce the impact of reflected light on the light source and system.

Other design and choose tips for optical splitters

  • In order to ensure the compatibility and stability of the equipment, each set of optical data acquisition systems (including the main link optical splitter, the duplicated link optical amplifier, and the duplicated link optical splitter) should preferably be integrated by the same manufacturer.
  • The optical splitter is a highly integrated, non-modular one-shot device. Considering the subsequent scalability, it’s better to configure sufficiently by the full configuration.
  • In order to save space in the computer room and facilitate operation and maintenance, the optical splitter racks should be placed uniformly in the computer room.
  • Considering the security and stability of the link, the main and backup links are required to be placed independently in sub-racks.

At the end

When designing an optical link, it is very important to plan the link according to the PON’s transmit and receive optical power. The optical splitter, as a component of the PON network, is a passive device that connects the OLT and the ONU. How to choose & design an optical splitter is vital in these conditions.

As a passive optical component manufacturer, Bonelinks can provide both FBT fiber splitters and PLC fiber splitters, and provide 1×2, 1×4, 1×8, 1×16, 1×32, 1×64 and other splitters in different ratios. Customized fiber splitters are available according to the specific requirements of customers. Our fiber optic splitters can be used in long-distance fiber optic communication, fiber to the home, fiber laser, fiber sensor and other fields. If you need help, or you need other fiber optic devices, please contact us.

Echo Huang

Echo Huang is an expert wordsmith and marketing professional at Bonelinks with more than 8 years of experience in high technology businesses – fiber optics, IoT, and telecommunication. She is very glad to share industry knowledge and communicate with others.

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